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Annotated Bibliography

Note: Citations were made in MLA using Zotero

Anderson, John R., and Jon M. Fincham. “Extending Problem-Solving Procedures through Reflection.” Cognitive Psychology 74 (2014): 1–34. EBSCOhost. Web.
A primary research article that used fMRI scanning to measure activity levels in specific regions of the brain during problem-solving sessions. They determined that discrete regions of the brain were highly active in the problem-solving stages of encoding, planning, solving and responding. The addition of the metacognitive activity of reflection to the learning process heightened brain activity in the discrete regions of the brain and was associated with greater skill in solving unfamiliar problems that were related to the newly learned topic.

Barnett, Susan M., and Stephen J. Ceci. “When and Where Do We Apply What We Learn?: A Taxonomy for Far Transfer.” Psychological Bulletin 128.4 (2002): 612–637. ProQuest. Web.
A review article focused on knowledge transfer and discussion of different approaches to accomplish transfer. The effective use of analogy for transfer depends on the relationship between the topics/problems and the explicit identification of similarities and differences between the topics. Results are mixed regarding the effectiveness of discipline specific methods courses for knowledge transfer. Metacognitive approaches of self-explanation and self-transfer demonstrated to be effective in training but are context dependent for success in transfer. Success of knowledge transfer is affected by the type of knowledge to be transferred and by the distance between the topic and the application of the knowledge.

Benassi, Victor A., Catherine E. Overson, and Christopher M. Hakala, eds. “Applying Science of Learning in Education: Infusing Psychological Science into the Curriculum.” Society for the Teaching of Psychology: Division 2 of the American Psychological Association, 2014. Web.
*PDF found here: http://teachpsych.org/ebooks/asle2014/index.php
A multi-author book with three sections that contain individual chapters which focus on principles of learning, suggestions for teaching approaches, and case studies that directly test hypotheses based on principles presented in the first section. Principles in the first section include feedback, active learning, self-explanation, worked examples, interleaving and reflection. Suggested teaching approaches include effective assessment, construction of a cognition toolbox, applying learning principles to teaching, and promoting effective study skills. Case studies address strategies for presentation of material, different testing structure, and working with skilled and less-skilled learners. Each chapter is well-referenced and has a bulleted list of major points.

Billing, David. “Teaching for Transfer of Core/Key Skills in Higher Education: Cognitive Skills.” Higher Education 53.4 (2007): 483–516. EBSCOhost. Web.
This lengthy article provides a comprehensive account of the best practices to encourage the transfer of key/core skills in higher education curricula. Key sections include conditions for transfer, metacognitive skills and strategies, and problem-solving. Throughout the article, the author provides many lists of best practices and useful suggestions to provide instructors with sound advice for increasing transfer, in particular for skills in higher education.

Bransford, John D., and Daniel L. Schwartz. “Rethinking Transfer: A Simple Proposal With Multiple Implications.” Review of Research in Education. Vol. 24. N.p., 1999. 61–100. rre.sagepub.com. Web.
A review article that discusses the effectiveness of different approaches for knowledge/skill transfer. The style of instruction (traditional lectures vs active learning) does not affect performance on memory-based tests but active learning improved performance on skill transfer tests. The addition of metacognitive approaches (self-monitoring, self-reflection) further increased skill transfer. Different types of active learning instruction were more or less successful in achieving skill transfer. Sequestered problem-solving and direct application, activities that directly reinforce the lesson, were less effective for skill transfer than was the use of preparation-for-future problem-solving, activity that required learners to apply knowledge to unfamiliar problems/situations. Requiring interpretation of newly presented knowledge was more effective at knowledge/skill transfer than was summarization of the presented information. Error making and correcting activities, such as uninformed hypothesis testing, were useful for knowledge/skill transfer.

Brown, Peter C., Henry L. Roediger III, and Mark A. McDaniel. “Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning.” 1 edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 2014. Print.
*On reserve at Lane Library
In this comprehensive and incredibly useful book, the authors successfully challenge many commonly held beliefs (such as the idea that different students and different “learning styles” that must be catered to) and frequently conducted practices (such as one or two large exams per semester) that decrease the transfer of learning. Several chapters provide the blueprint for the best instructional strategies to increase transfer. Each chapter includes many examples from a variety of disciplines and types of courses. This well-written, widely accessible book is indispensable for instructors of higher education who are hoping either to design new courses or revise existing courses with a mind toward enhancing what students take with them upon graduation.

Doyle, Terry. Learner-Centered Teaching: Putting the Research on Learning into Practice. Sterling, Va: Stylus Publishing, 2011. Print.
*On reserve at Lane Library
In this practical book, Doyle synthesizes research from learning science, including cognitive science, and then provides a set of strategies for professors to use in their own classrooms. The book is filled with tips and ruminations on good pedagogy. There are citations in the book, but it does not critique and summarize the educational research in depth. Rather, it focuses primarily on ramifications of this research in the classroom.

Dunbar, Kevin N., Johnathan A. Fugelsang, and Courtney Stein. “Do Naïve Theories Ever Go Away? Using Brain and Behavior to Understand Changes in Concepts.” Thinking with Data. Ed. M. C. Lovett and P. Shah. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007. Web.
*PDF found here: http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~dunbarlab/pubpdfs/dunbarTheoryData.pdf
This chapter in an edited volume describes three studies focused on conceptual change through behavioral and fMRI data. Students may have misconceptions about a particular topic and they may have difficulty correctly integrating multiple sources of information. Using fMRI, the authors found differences in brain activation when data provided to the participants were consistent with their own theories compared to when the data were inconsistent. The activated areas involved with the inconsistent data were associated with error detection. This shows that individuals’ prior beliefs in a theory can have an influence on how they interpret data and that this may influence their ability to reorganize their knowledge/concepts.

Gentner, Dedre, Jeffrey Loewenstein, and Leigh Thompson. “Learning and Transfer: A General Role for Analogical Encoding.” Journal of Educational Psychology 95.2 (2003): 393–408. ProQuest. Web.
Across three experiments, the authors examine the use of analogies by undergraduate students in a lab setting. Overall, they found that the opportunity to compare two cases (with the comparison task being explicit) was beneficial over no training (Experiment 1). When participants were presented the cases in comparison versus separately, they demonstrated increased understanding and transfer for the comparison condition (Experiment 2). Finally, novice negotiators were able to learn the relevant principles in the cases and transfer those to face-to-face negotiations (Experiment 3). The authors highlight how beneficial analogical encoding can be and how it can be utilized for education, however, they also caution how the learners likely will not engage in this process spontaneously (i.e., the need to be explicit).

Lang, James. Small Teaching: Everyday Lessons from the Science of Learning. 1st edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2016. Print.
*On reserve at Lane Library
In this book, the author highlights many examples of effective and innovative ways to engage students’ learning and knowledge with “small activities.” These activities may be something that individuals integrate throughout their courses or may just be one time. Chapter topics include retrieving, practicing, interleaving and self-explaining. At the end of the chapters, he provides useful “small teaching quick tips” relevant to the chapter’s topic.

Loewenstein, Jeffrey, Leigh Thompson, and Dedre Gentner. “Analogical Learning in Negotiation Teams: Comparing Cases Promotes Learning and Transfer.” Academy of Management Learning & Education 2.2 (2003): 119–127. EBSCOhost. Web.
In this empirical article, the authors explore the impact of training in cases on negotiation in teams by testing MBA students and mid-level sales managers. Participants received no training or one of two different team training (comparing cases or separate cases). The subsequent negation took place with their team intact or dissolved (solo). They found support for the analogy training (i.e., those that compared cases) being the most beneficial and the knowledge transfer to be low for those who had the cases separately. They also discuss how these results can be applied to management education and training.

Mathan, Santosh A., and Kenneth R. Koedinger. “Fostering the Intelligent Novice: Learning From Errors With Metacognitive Tutoring.” Educational Psychologist 40.4 (2005): 257–265. EBSCOhost. Web.
In this article, the question of when to give feedback to students is addressed. The key idea is that we should avoid immediately correcting students when they are wrong, such that they can practice finding errors for themselves. However, rather than permitting students to waste large amounts of time, nudging students to look for errors or giving them some hints may be useful interventions. A substantial focus of the article involved building these strategies into educational software.

Paas, Fred, Alexander Renkl, and John Sweller. “Cognitive Load Theory and Instructional Design: Recent Developments.” Educational Psychologist 38.1 (2003): 1–4. EBSCOhost. Web.
In this short article, the concept of cognitive load is used to inform how courses, assignments and problems are designed. Key lessons from this article relate to how people process information. Because most people can interrogate only three pieces of information at a time in their short-term working memory, it is important to limit irrelevant information told to students at any given time. To deepen knowledge, it is important to understand that people can engage with much more complex ideas if some of the information, or ways of processing that information, are stored in their long-term memory. Such long-term memories provide cognitive “scaffolds” and “schemas.” Extending on this fact, to help students to learn it is often a good idea to use real-world scenarios in the classroom, as the students likely will have strategies for processing such information into their long-term memories.

Perkins, David, and Gabriel Salomon. “Teaching for Transfer.” Educational Leadership 46.1 (1988): 22. EBSCOhost. Web.
This brief article introduces the key terms needed to understand the literature about transfer. Through some examples and summaries of past research about transfer of learning, the authors explain some of the key principles for encouraging transfer. The final section of this article argues for the importance of interdisciplinarity in fostering transfer.

—. “Transfer of Learning.” International Encyclopedia of Education. 2nd edition. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1992. Web.
*PDF found here: http://jaymctighe.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Transfer-of-Learning-Perkins-and-Salomon.pdf
This short article provides a basic explanation of the key terms needed to understand the literature about transfer and metacognition. Also included is a short literature review section. Most importantly, the authors provide short sections about conditions that encourage and discourage transfer, the various mechanisms of transfer, and two broad strategies for transfer. This is a useful article for familiarizing oneself with the key terms of metacognition in education but does not provide specific examples for instructional design.

Renkl, Alexander, and Robert K. Atkinson. “Structuring the Transition From Example Study to Problem Solving in Cognitive Skill Acquisition: A Cognitive Load Perspective.” Educational Psychologist 38.1 (2003): 15–22. EBSCOhost. Web.
A review article focused on successful uses of problem-solving exercises for knowledge transfer/skill acquisition. They report that the use of step-by-step worked-out problems is most effective in skill acquisition for students in early or basic levels of a discipline. For intermediate and advanced learners, they report that use of problem-solving exercises that address unfamiliar material is most effective for transfer.

Roediger, Henry L. “Applying Cognitive Psychology to Education: Translational Educational Science.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14.1 (2013): 1–3. EBSCOhost. Web.
This brief article addresses some of the research completed about learning and memory and how the results can be applied to educational practices. Specifically, the author highlights the work completed by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Educational Sciences (IES). Research found support for some techniques being utilized that also were generalizable. These included distributed practice on tasks and practice retrieval (testing).
Other techniques highlighted showed promise, but were not as generalizable.

Taatgen, Niels A. “The Nature and Transfer of Cognitive Skills.” Psychological Review 120.3 (2013): 439–471. ProQuest. Web.
In this lengthy and detailed article, the author presents a theory of how people learn skills and transfer them to new contexts. His key argument is that we should not focus on the “procedural” ways that skills develop (step-by-step learning), but rather on the “primitive elements” that make up any given skill. That is because when people face new problems, if they are parallel in structure to old problems that someone knows how to solve, they may be able to use the primitive elements in new contexts. Thus, the primitive elements model is better for understanding “far transfer” of ideas between very different contexts.

White, Barbara, and John Frederiksen. “A Theoretical Framework and Approach for Fostering Metacognitive Development.” Educational Psychologist 40.4 (2005): 211–223. EBSCOhost. Web.
In this article, the authors theorize metacognition (thinking about thinking) as a process that includes “planning, monitoring, reflecting and improving” (215). The key idea is that people can learn to be better learners by thinking about their own cognitive processes. The example that they explore in-depth involves coaching from a software “mentor” geared toward fifth-grade students.

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