Robert Lee Wallace

  Robert Wallace



  • 1970 B.S. University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (major Zoology; minor Chemistry)
  • 1975 Ph.D. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (Aquatic Ecology; Invertebrate Zoology)
  • 1975-1977 Postdoctoral Fellowship (Aquatic Ecology), University of Washington, Seattle, WA


Current Courses Taught

  • Biology 110 – Topics in Biology: Plagues (non-majors)
  • Biology 121 – Introductory Biology
  • Biology 200 – Scientific Writing and Communication
  • Biology 215 – Invertebrate Zoology
  • Biology 247 – General Ecology
  • Biology 338 – Aquatic Ecology
  • Biology 450 – Intensive Field Studies
  • Biology 501,502 – Independent Study




Awards and Honors

  • Teaching Awards — Severy Teaching Professor (1981, 1982, 1993, 1996, 2006); Underkofler award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching (2001); Ripon College nominee for the CASE Professor Award (1994, 2001).
  • Professional Memberships — American Association for the Advancement of Science; American Microscopical Society; American Society of Limnology and Oceanography; Association of College and University Biology Educators; Ecological Society of America; International Carnivorous Plant Society; Societas Internationalis Limnologiae. Honorary Societies– Phi Kappa Phi (Academic Honor Society); Phi Sigma Society (Biological Academic Honor Society); Sigma Xi (the Scientific Research Society of N.A.)

Grants Awarded

  • 1975 Ecology of Sessile Rotifers (W.T. Edmondson & R.L. Wallace, co-principal investigators) N.S.F. BMS 75-03107.
  • 1977 Above renewed. DEB 75-03175 A01.
  • 1980 Small-College, Faculty Supplement Award to Research Grant DEB 78-02882; R.L. Wallace, Small-College Faculty Member.
  • 1981 Above renewed.
  • 1982 Clearance Rate of Sessile Rotifers. American Philosophy Society, Research Grant. (Penrose-21000).
  • 1984 Acquisition of research microscopes and accessories. NSF-RUI grant for research microscopes and related materials; BSR-8405157.
  • 1988 Distribution of the Gregarine Parasite Monocystis in the EarthwormLumbricus terrestris. Associated Colleges of the Midwest Minority Scholar Grant to J. Hayashi (R.L. Wallace, mentor).
  • 1989 Above renewed. Associated Colleges of the Midwest.
  • 1989 Aquatic Research. Bing Farms, Inc. R.L. Wallace.
  • 1992 Unpalatability of a colonial rotifer, Sinantherina socialis, to small zooplanktivorous fishes. Associated Colleges of the Midwest Minority Scholar Grant to A. Felix (R.L. Wallace, mentor).
  • 1999 Ripon College, Professional Collaboration Grant: Limnological Investigations on Green Lake (Green Lake, WI).
  • 2001 Ripon College, Professional Development Grant: Rotifer Taxonomy.
  • 2003 Ripon College, Professional Collaboration: Limnological Investigations on White Lake (Marquette Co., WI).
  • 2004 WISC Grant to Drs. E.J. Walsh (PI) & R.L. Wallace (Co-PI). Life on the Edge: Community Structure of Basal Microinvertebrate Consumers in Endangered Springs and Ephemeral Waters of the Chihuahuan Desert (U.S. & Mexico).
  • 2004 Ripon College, Professional Collaboration Grant: Limnological Investigations on White Lake.
  • 2005 Associated Colleges of the Midwest, FaCE Project: Enhancing scholarship and teaching in one bite.
  • 2005 National Science Foundation: Community composition and phylogeography of microinvertebrates of Chihuahuan Desert waters (U.S. and Mexico). (Dr. E.J. Walsh with UTEP as lead institution.) 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 – supplemental awards for undergraduate researchers.
  • 2009 Carnivory in the aquatic plant Utricularia macrorhiza McNair Grant to B. Wiggins (R.L. Wallace, mentor).
  • 2009 Nitrogen and phosphorous levels in the sediments of Bing Lake. McNair Grant to S. Anderson (R.L. Wallace, mentor).
  • 2010 The Impact of Biological Invasions. Ethical Leadership Grant to L. Kelly (R.L. Wallace, mentor).
  • 2012 Ripon College, Trustee Grant: 3-D visualization of rotifer trophi. Ripon’s 3D printer.
  • 2013 National Science Foundation (DEB 1257116): Collaborative Research: Integrating genetics, life history, and morphology to understand the diversification of an enigmatic metazoan lineage. 2013–2017. (Drs. E.J. Walsh (UTEP), R. Hochberg (UML), and R.L. Wallace (Ripon).
  • 2014 National Science Foundation (CHE 1429616): MRI: Acquisition of a Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer for Accurate-Mass Determination and Complex Mixture Analysis. (Drs. P.H. Willoughby, C.M. Bryon, and R.L. Wallace.



Recent Publications and Presentations

(* = student co-authors)

  • Wallace, R.L. 1975. Larval behavior of the sessile rotifer Ptygura beauchampi(Edmondson). Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 19: 2811–2815.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1977a. Distribution of sessile rotifers in an acid bog pond. Arch. Hydrobiol.  79(4): 478–505.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1977b. Adaptive advantages of substrate selection by sessile rotifers. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. 8: 53–55.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1977c. Substrate discrimination by larvae of the sessile rotiferPtygura beauchampi Edmondson. Freshwat. Biol. 7: 301–309.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1978. Substrate selection by larvae of the sessile rotifer Ptygurabeauchampi. Ecology 59: 221–227.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1980. Ecology of sessile rotifers. Hydrobiologia 73: 181–193.
  • Wallace, R.L. & Starkweather, P.L. 1983. Clearance rates of sessile rotifers: in situ determinations. Hydrobiologia.  104: 379–383.
  • Wallace, R.L. & Starkweather, P.L. 1985. Clearance rates of sessile rotifers: in vitro determinations. Hydrobiologia.  121: 139–144.
  • Wallace, R.L. & Edmondson, W.T. 1986. Mechanism and adaptive significance of substrate selection by the sessile rotifer Collotheca gracilipes. Ecology 67 (2): 314–323.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1987. Coloniality in the phylum Rotifera. Hydrobiologia. 147: 141–155.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1988. Use of a local information retrieval system (DATATRIEVE) by undergraduates.  Bioscene 14(1): 31–33. <NB: a peer reviewed, regional journal dedicated to college biology teaching.>
  • Wallace, R.L. & Colburn, R.A*. 1989. Phylogenetic relationships within phylum Rotifera: orders and genus Notholca.  Hydrobiologia 186/187: 311–318.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1993. Presence of anisotropic (birefringent) crystalline structures in embryonic and juvenile monogonont rotifers. Hydrobiologia 255/257: 71-76.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1993. Phylogeny of the phylum Rotifera: a workshop. Hydrobiologia 255/257: 491–493.
  • Felix, A.,* Stevens, M.E., & Wallace, R.L. 1995. Unpalatability of a colonial rotifer, Sinantherina socialis, to small zooplanktivorous fishes. Invertebrate Biology 114(2): 139-144.
  • Wallace, R.L., Ricci, C., & Melone, G. 1995. Through Alice’s Looking Glass: a cladistic analysis of pseudocoelomate anatomy. Pages 61-67, in Body Cavities: function and phylogeny. (G. Lanzavecchia, R. Valvassori, & M.D. Candia Carnevali, eds.). Selected Symposia and Monographs Unione Zoologica Italiana, 8, Mucchi, Modena.
  • Nogrady, T. & Wallace, R.L. 1995. Numerical taxonomy of the genus Notholca.Hydrobiologia 313/314: 99-104.
  • Bevington, D.,* White, C.,* & Wallace, R.L. 1995. Predatory behaviors ofCupelopagis vorax (Rotifera, Collothecacea, Atrochidae) on protozoan prey. Hydrobiologia 313/314: 213-217.
  • Wallace, R.L., Ricci, C., & Melone, G. 1996. A cladistic analysis of pseudocoelomate (aschelminth) morphology. Invertebrate Biology 115(2): 104-112.
  • Melone, G. Ricci, C., & Wallace, R.L. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of acanthocephala and rotifera: morphological vs. molecular approaches. Pages 57-62, in 1 Colloquio Nazionale di Sistematica Cladistica. (Cristofolini, G. & Minelli, A., eds.). Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona (20 Serie).
  • Melone, G., Ricci, C., Segers, H., & Wallace, R.L. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of Phylum Rotifera. Hydrobiologia 387/388: 101-107.
  • Wallace, R.L., Cipro, J.J*. & Grubbs, R.W.* 1998. Relative investment in offspring by sessile Rotifera. Hydrobiologia 387/388: 311-316.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1999. Phylum Rotifera. Pages 118-129, in Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Volume 4. E. Knobil & J.D. Neill (eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • Verb, R.G., Vis, M.L., Ott, D.W., & Wallace, R.L. 1999. New records of Vaucheria species (Xanthophceae) with associated Proales werneckii(Rotifera) from North America. Cryptogamie Algologie 20(2): 67-73.
  • Wallace, R.L. 2000. On a charismatic microfauna. Review of The Biology of Calanoid Copepods. (Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 33 (John Mauchline). Academic Press, San Diego, 1998. 710 pp., illus.) BioScience 50(9): 827-829.
  • Segers, H. & Wallace, R.L. 2001. Contribution to a revision of Family Conochilidae (Rotifera; Monogononta; Flosculariacea). Zoologica Scripta 30(1): 3748.
  • Wallace, R.L., Gilbert, J. & King, C. 2001. In memoriam: W.T. “Tommy” Edmondson (19162000). Hydrobiologia 446/447: xv-xxi.
  • Wallace, R. L., Ott, D.W. Stiles, S.L. & Oldham-Ott, C.K. 2001. Bed and Breakfast: the parasitic life of Proales werneckii (Ploimida: Proalidae) within the alga Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae: Vaucheriales). Hydrobiologia 446/447: 129-137.
  • Wallace, R.L. & Ricci, C. 2002. Rotifera. Pages 15-44, in S.D. Rundle, A.L. Robertson & J.M. Schmid-Araya (eds.). Freshwater Meiofauna: Biology and Ecology. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
  • Wallace, R.L. 2002. Rotifers: Exquisite Metazoans. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42: 660-667.
  • Fontaneto, D., Melone, G., & Wallace, R.L. 2003. Morphology of Floscularia ringens (Rotifera, Monogononta) from egg to adult. Invertebrate Biology 122: 231-240.
  • Walsh, E. & Wallace, R.L. 2003. Life on the edge: an evaluation of the health of Chihuahuan Desert waters. Chihuahuan Desert Discovery 49(2): 25.
  • Walsh, E.J., Wallace, R.L., & Shiel, R.J. 2005. Toward a Better Understanding of the Phylogeny of the Asplanchnidae (Rotifera). Hydrobiologia 546(1): 71-80.
  • Wallace, R.L., Walsh, E.J., Arroyo, M.L. & Starkweather, P.L. 2005. Life on the Edge: Rotifers From Springs and Ephemeral Waters in the Chihuahuan Desert, Big Bend National Park (Texas, USA). Hydrobiologia 546(1): 147-157.
  • Beres, K., Wallace, R.L., & Segers, H. 2005. Rotifers and Hubbell’s Unified Neutral Theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Natural Resource Modeling 18(3): 363-376.
  • Wallace, R.L., Snell, T.W., Ricci, C. & Nogrady, T. 2006. Rotifera: Volume 1 Biology, Ecology and Systematics (2nd ed.). Guides to the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World, Vol. 23, (Segers, H., ed.). Kenobi Productions, Ghent, & Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
  • Walsh, E.J., M. Salazar*, J. Remirez*, O. Moldes*, & R.L. Wallace. 2006. Predation by invertebrate predators on the colonial rotifer, Sinantherina socialis. Invertebrate Biology 125(4): 325–335.
  • Walsh, E.J., T. Schröder, M.L. Arroyo, & R.L. Wallace. 2007. How well do single samples reflect rotifer species diversity? A test based on interannual variation of rotifer communities in Big Bend National Park (Texas, USA). Hydrobiologia 593: 39–47.
  • Wallace, R.L., E.J. Walsh, R. Rico-Martinez, J.V. Rios Arana, & T. Schröder. 2008. Species composition and distribution of rotifers in Chihuahuan desert waters: is everything everywhere? Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol.  30(1): 73–76.
  • Walsh, E.J., T. Schröder, R.L. Wallace, J.V. Ríos-Arana, & R. Rico-Martínez. 2008. Rotifers from selected inland saline waters in the Chihuahuan Desert of México. Saline Systems 4:7. doi: 10.1186/1746-1448-4-7 // Available from:
  • Smith, H.A.*, J. Ejsmont-Karabin, T. Hess, & R.L. Wallace. 2009. Paradox of planktonic rotifers: similar structure but unique trajectories in communities of the Great Masurian Lakes (Poland). Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 30(6): 951–956.
  • Wallace, R.L.  2009. Choice review: Aridland springs in North America: ecology and conservation. (Lawrence E. Stevens & Vicky J. Meretsky, eds.). Arizona/Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, 2008. (April 2009).
  • Walsh, E.J. T. Schroeder, R.L. Wallace, & G. Santos Medrano*. 2009. Cryptic speciation in Chihuahuan Desert zooplankton? I. Lecane bulla(Monogononta: Rotifera). Internat. Verein. Limnol. 30: 30(7): 1046–1050.
  • Obertegger, U., H.A. Smith*, G. Flaim, & R.L. Wallace. 2011. Using the guild ratio to characterize pelagic rotifer communities. Hydrobiologia 662: 157-162.
  • Segers, H., W.H. DeSmet, C. Fischer, D. Fontaneto, E. Michaloudi, R.L. Wallace, & C.D. Jersabek, 2012. Towards a list of available names in zoology, partim phylum Rotifera. Zootaxa 3179: 61-68.
  • Wallace, R.L. and Sarma, S.S.S. 2013. The 13th International Rotifer Symposium, Shillong, India, November 18–24, 2012. SIL News 62: 17–18.
  • Wallace, R.L., Sarma, S.S.S., and Nandini, S. 2013. A commentary on the XIIIth International Rotifer Symposium (Shillong, 2012). Aquatic Biosystems 9(1):1-13. DOI: 10.1186/2046-9063-9-13.
  • Wallace, R.L. 2013. Choice review of Wetland environments: a global perspective by J. Sandusky, F. Pavri, & S. Ward Aber. Wiley-Blackwell. (August 2013).
  • Wallace, R.L. 2013. Choice review of Mid-Atlantic Freshwater Wetlands: Advances in Wetlands Science, Management Policy and Practice. Edited by R. P. Brooks and D. H. Wardrop. Springer, New York. November 2013 issue of Choice.
  • Wallace, R.L., Walsh, E.J., Weber, K., Rico Martinez, R., & Das, S. Coloniality in rotifers: Implications for survival and fitness — SICB, Austin Texas, 3-7 January 2014: Abstract Number: 6-104073.
  • Meksuwan, P., Pholpunthin, P., Walsh, E.J., Segers, H., and Wallace, R.L. 2014. Nestedness in sessile and periphytic rotifer communities: A meta-analysis. International Review of Hydrobiology 99: 3-19.
  • Walsh, E.J., Smith, H., and Wallace, R.L. 2014. Rotifers of temporary waters. International Review of Hydrobiology 99: 48-57.
  • Wallace, R.L. Snell, T. and Smith, H.A. 2014. Rotifer. Vol. I, Chapter 13: Ecology and General Biology. In: Thorp and Covich’s Freshwater Invertebrates. Elsevier (in press)
  • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Invited lectures (8 hrs) on aquatic ecology (21–25 January, 2014) to students in their postgraduate program.
  • Wallace, R.L. 2014. Choice review of Drought in arid and semi-arid regions: a multi-disciplinary and cross-country perspective. (K. Schwabe et al., eds.). Springer, 2013. 507p. April 2014 issue of Choice.
  • Walsh, E.J., M.L. Arroyo, T. Schröder, and R.L. Wallace. 2014. Species richness and species turnover (complementarity) of Rotifera in selected aquatic systems of Big Bend National Park, Texas. In: C.A. Hoyt & J. Karges (editors). Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on the Natural Resources of the Chihuahuan Desert Region. October 14–17. Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute, Fort Davis, TX. pp. 185–204

Textbooks and Related Educational Publications

(* = student co-authors)

  • Wallace, R.L. & Smith, H.A. 2013. Rotifera. In: eLS 2013, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester. [DOI:10.1002/9780470015902.a0001588.pub2}. (May 2013).
  • Wallace, R.L. 1995. Student Study Guide to accompany David Ross’ “Introduction to Oceanography.” HarperCollins College Publ. Inc., New York, 195 pages. ISBN 0-673-46939-5.
  • Wallace, R.L. 1996. Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank to accompany James Nybakken’s textbook “Marine Biology, an ecological approach.” Fourth edition. HarperCollins College Publ., N.Y. ISBN 0-673-97009-4.
  • Wallace, R.L. 2000. Priapulida. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. [electronic publication #1592; consult --].
  • Wallace, R.L. 2000. Rotifera. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. [electronic publication #1588; consult --].
  • Wallace, R.L. & Snell, T.W. 2001. Rotifera. Chapter 8. Pages 195-254, in “Ecology and Classifications of North American Freshwater Invertebrates,” second edition (J. Thorp & A. Covich, eds.). Academic Press. New York.
  • Wallace, R.L. & Taylor, W.K. 2002. “Invertebrate Zoology,” 6th ed. Prentice Hall, N.J. ISBN 0-13-042937-6
  • Wallace, R.L. & Brooks, W.S. 2003. A dinosaur trackways exercise. Bioscene. 29(3): 3-7.
  • Wallace, R.L. 2005. Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank for “Marine Biology, an ecological approach.” 6th edition by James Nybakken & Mark. D. Bertness. Person Education Inc. Benjamin Cummings. San Francisco, Calif. 185 pages. ISBN 0-8053-4585-X.
  • Wallace, R.L. 2005. Teaching population growth using a culture of the vinegar eel, Turbatrix aceti (Nematoda). Bioscene, “Journal of College Biology Teaching.” 31(1): 21-25.
  • Wallace, R.L. & Smith, H.A.* 2009. Rotifer. In G.E. Likens (editor). Encyclopedia of Inland Waters. Elsevier, Oxford.
  • Wallace, R.L. & Snell. T.W. 2010. Rotifera. Chapter 8. Pages 173-235. In:Ecology and Classifications of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 3rd edition. (J. Thorp & A. Covich, eds.). Elsevier. Oxford.
  • Wallace, R.L. & Smith, H.A.* 2010. Rotifera. Pages 183-197. In G.E. Likens (editor). Plankton of Inland Waters. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Edited Volumes

  • May, L., Wallace, R., & Herzig, A. (eds.). 1987. Rotifer Symposium IV. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-6193-645-4.
  • Wurdak, E., Wallace, R.L., & Segers, H. (eds.). 1998. Rotifer Symposium VIII. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 0-7923-5571-7.
  • Sarma, S.S.S., Gulati, R.D., Wallace, R., Nandini, S., Dumont, H.J., Rico-Martínez, R. 2007. Rotifer Symposium XI. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Commentaries, Editorials, & Related Popular Works

  • Wallace, R.L. 1994. On the debate over the destruction of variola – the smallpox virus: “U.S., Russia can work together to destroy last smallpox virus” The Oregonian, 12 May 1994; The Houston Post, 16 May 1994; “No Mercy for Variola, a Mass Murderer” St Louis Post-Dispatch, 28 May 1994; “Big decisions about smallpox” Providence Journal-Bulletin, 4 June 1994; “Mass Murderer that Deserves to be Zapped — Smallpox Virus” Valley News, 7 June 1994; “It’s time to put a mass killer – smallpox – to death” Ripon Commonwealth Press, 23 June 1994, The Milwaukee Journal, 26 June 1994.


  • Photographs posted on the teaching web site of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography at



Areas of Interest

  •  Ecology; Limnology; Marine Biology; Invertebrate Zoology; Zooplankton Ecology; Rotifera