MLA

Book

Single author

Lane, Libbie. College Writing. New York: Doubleday, 2003. Print.

Two to three authors

Goetz, Stewart, and Charles Taliaferro. A Brief History of the Soul. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell,

2011. Print.

Four or more authors

Hiassen, Carl, et al. Naked Came the Manatee. New York: Ballantine Books, 1998. Print.

Book with editor

Morgan, Bill, and David Stanford, eds. Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: The Letters.

New York: Penguin, 2011. Print.

Book chapter

Toft, Monica Duffy. "Religion, Rationality, and Violence." Religion and International Relations

Theory. Ed. Jack Snyder. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. 115-140. Print.

Journal article

Print version

Kowalewski, Michael. "Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism." American Literary

History 6.1 (1994): 171-183. Print.

Found in an online database

Kowalewski, Michael. "Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism." American Literary

History 6.1 (1994): 171-183. JSTOR. Web. 21 Oct. 2009.

Encyclopedia

Well known encyclopedias and dictionaries

Omit the publisher and place of publication.

"Coterie." Webster's Third New International Dictionary. 1961. Print.

Specialized encyclopedias and dictionaries

Give full publication information

Hyde, Michael J. "Hermeneutics." Encyclopedia of Rhetoric. Ed. Thomas O. Sloane. Oxford:

Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.

Oxford English Dictionary online

"Indulge, v." Def. I1c. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online. Web.

16 Dec. 2011.

Website

Clark, Josh. "10 Most Helpful Things Being Done to Save Sharks Today." Shark Week.

Discovery Communications, 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.

*MLA style does not include URLs in the citation, but if your professor requires the URL, or if you think it would be hard to find the site without knowing the URL, place it in angle brackets at the end of the citation:
< http://dsc.discovery.com/sharks/top-10-shark-conservation-projects.html>.

In-text citations

Use parenthetical references for in-text citations. When you use a direct quote, the parenthetical reference must come immediately after the end of the quote. The basic format is the author's last name followed by the page(s) you are referencing:

The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers 98).

If the author's name is already in the sentence, just cite the page number:

According to Viers, this "plump and ungainly" (98)animal...

If there is no known author, or if your paper references multiple works by the same author, include a shortened version of the title:

(Kowalewski, "Writing in Place" 178.).

General Rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper "Works Cited."
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • Double space all lines.
  • For citations that take up more than one line, indent subsequent lines (a "hanging indent" in Word).
  • If no publication date is available, use n.d.; if no publisher is named, use N.p.; if no pagination is given, use n.pag.

Further examples:

Chicago

Book

Single author

Bibliography

Lane, Libbie. College Writing. New York: Doubleday, 2003.

Notes

1. Libbie Lane, College Writing (New York: Doubleday, 2003), 99-100.

Two to three authors

Bibliography

Goetz, Stewart, and Charles Taliaferro. A Brief History of the Soul. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell,

2011.
Notes

1. Stewart Goetz and Charles Taliaferro, A Brief History of the Soul (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011), 71.

Four or more authors

Bibliography

List all the authors in the bibliography, following the pattern used for books with two to three authors.

Notes

1. Hiassen, Carl, et al., Naked Came the Manatee (New York: Ballantine Books, 1998), 52.

Book with editor

Bibliography

Morgan, Bill, and David Stanford, eds. Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: The Letters.

New York: Penguin, 2011.
Notes

1. Bill Morgan and David Stanford, eds., Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: The Letters (New York: Penguin, 2011), 326-27.

Book chapter

Bibliography

Toft, Monica Duffy. "Religion, Rationality, and Violence." In Religion and International Relations

Theory, edited by Jack Snyder, 115-40. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.
Notes

1. Monica Duffy Toft, "Religion, Rationality, and Violence," in Religion and International Relations Theory, ed. Jack Snyder (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), 123.

Journal article

Print version

Bibliography

Kowalewski, Michael. "Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism." American Literary

History 6, no. 1 (1994): 171-83.
Notes

1. Michael Kowalewski, "Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism," American Literary History 6, no. 1 (1994): 171-83.

Found in an online database

Bibliography

Kowalewski, Michael. "Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism." American Literary

History 6, no. 1 (1994): 171-83. http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906.
Notes

1. Michael Kowalewski, "Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism," American Literary History 6, no. 1 (1994): 171-83, http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906.

*For articles from an online database, use the stable URL, not the one that appears in the browser's address bar. Chicago style citations do not require the access date, but if your professor requires it, insert it before the URL:

Kowalewski, Michael. "Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism." American Literary History 6, no. 1

(1994): 171-83. Accessed October 21, 2009. http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906.

1. Michael Kowalewski, "Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism," American Literary History 6, no. 1 (1994): 171-83, accessed October 21, 2009, http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906.

Encyclopedia

Well known encyclopedias and dictionaries

Well known, alphabetically arranged encyclopedias and dictionaries do not need to be included in the bibliography, but the title, edition (if not the first), and entry should be cited in the notes.

1. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., s.v. "indulge."

Specialized encyclopedias and dictionaries

Treat signed articles as a chapter or article from a book.

Website

1. "Nutrition Facts: An Interactive Guide to Food Labels," Mayo Clinic, January 5, 2010, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nutrition-facts/NU00293.

*Websites should be cited in the notes, but are commonly omitted from the bibliography. If there is no publication, copyright, or modification date available, include the date accessed.

In-text citations

When using Chicago Style you will have numbered footnotes or endnotes as well as a bibliography.

The first time you cite a particular source, include the full citation. For subsequent references, use just the author's last name, a short form of the title, and the page or pages cited.  When you have two consecutive notes from the same source, you may use ibid (meaning "in the same place") in place of the duplicated information:

2. Michael Kowalewski, "Writing in Place: The New American Regionalism," American Literary History 6, no. 1 (1994): 171-83,
http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906
.
5. Kowalewski, "Writing in Place," 178.
6. Ibid., 173.

These examples follow Chicago's notes and bibliography system. A second Chicago system (sometimes preferred in the sciences) uses parenthetical author-date references in place of the notes. For examples of that system, see one of the sources listed below.

General Rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper "Bibliography."
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • For citations that take up more than one line, indent subsequent lines (a "hanging indent" in Word).
  • The examples on this page follow Chicago's notes and bibliography system. If your professor prefers the author-date system, see one of the sources listed below for examples.

Further examples:

APA

Book

Single author

Lane, L. (2003). College writing. New York, NY: Doubleday.

Two to five authors

Goetz, S., & Taliaferro, C. (2011). A brief history of the soul. Chichester, England:

Wiley-Blackwell.

Six or more authors

Hiassen, C., et al. (1998). Naked came the manatee. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Book with editor

Morgan, B., & Stanford, D. (Eds.). (2011). Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: the letters.

New York, NY: Penguin.

Book chapter

Toft, M. D. (2011). Religion, rationality, and violence. In J. Snyder (Ed.),Religion and

International relations theory (pp. 115-140). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Journal article

Print version

Kowalewski, M. (1994). Writing in place: the new American regionalism. American Literary

History, 6(1), 171-183.

Found in an online database

Kowalewski, M. (1994). Writing in place: the new American regionalism. American Literary

History, 6(1), 171-183. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906

*The issue number only needs to be included if each issue begins with page one. If the journal uses continuous pagination, omit the issue number. For articles with multiple authors, use the same guidelines given for books.

Encyclopedia

Signed articles in a reference book can be cited in the same format as a book article/chapter. For unsigned articles, follow this example:

Coterie. (1961). In Webster's third new international dictionary.

Website

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2010, January 5). Nutrition facts: an interactive guide to food labels.

Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nutrition-facts/NU00293

*If there is no publication date available, use n.d.

In-text citations

Use parenthetical references for in-text citations. The basic format is the author's last name followed by the date of publication:

The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers, 2001).

If the author's name is already in the sentence, include only the date:

According to Viers (2001), the cow's…

For direct quotes, include the page number immediately after the end of the quote:

The cow is a "plump and ungainly" (Viers, 2001, p. 98)animal.

In her 2001 study, Viers describes cows as "plump and ungainly" (p. 98).

For works with two authors, include both names every time:

(Goetz & Taliaferro, 2011)

For works with three to five authors, include all authors in the first parenthetical citation, but only the first author followed by et al. for subsequent citations; for works with six or more authors, include the first author followed by et al.:

(Hiassen et al., 1998)

General Rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper "Reference List."
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • Double space all lines.
  • For citations that take up more than one line, indent subsequent lines five spaces (a "hanging indent" in Word).
  • For works with no author, begin the citation with the title, followed by the date in parentheses.

Further examples:

CSE

Book

Single author

Lane L. 2003. College writing. New York: Doubleday.

Two to ten authors

Include the names of all authors.

Goetz S, Taliaferro C. 2011. A brief history of the soul. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Eleven or more authors

Include the names of the first ten authors, followed by et al.

Hiassen C, Leonard E, Barry D, Hall JW, Buchanan E, Standiford L, Levine P, Antoni B, Due T, Dufresne J, et al. 1998. Naked came the manatee. New York: Ballantine Books.

Book chapter

Toft MD. 2011. Religion, rationality, and violence. In: Snyder J, editor. Religion and International Relations Theory. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 115-140.

Journal article

Print version

Kowalewski M. 1994. Writing in place: the new American regionalism. Am Lit Hist. 6(1):171-183.

Found in an online database

Kowalewski M. 1994. Writing in place: the new American regionalism. Am Lit Hist [Internet]. [cited 2011 16 December]; 6(1):171-183. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/489906

* For articles with multiple authors, use the same guidelines given for books.

* Note that CSE style uses abbreviations for journal titles. Use the ISI journal abbreviation list to locate the correct abbreviation.

Encyclopedia article

Hyde, MJ. Hermeneutics. In: Sloane TO, editor. Encyclopedia of rhetoric. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2001. p 273-276.

* If there is no author or editor, omit this information.

Website

Nutrition facts: an interactive guide to food labels. [Internet]. 2010 January 5. Rochester (MN): Mayo Clinic; [cited 2011 December 16]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nutrition-facts/NU00293

In-text citations

The examples on this page follow CSE's name-year citation system, which uses parenthetical references for in-text citations. The basic format is the author's last name followed by the date of publication:

The cow’s lunar gambol made her a literary hero (Viers 2001).

For works with two authors, include both names:

(Goetz and Taliaferro 2011)

For works with three or more authors, list the first author followed by et al.:

(Hiassen et al. 1998)

For works by corporate authors, abbreviate to the inital letter of each part of the name:

(APA 2010)

General Rules

  • Title the list of sources at the end of your paper "References" or "Cited References."
  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author.
  • All lines of a citation should be flush left (no hanging indents).
  • The examples on this page use CSE's name-year citation system. If your professor prefers a different CSE system, see one of the sources listed below for examples.

Further examples:

Journal Article Book Website
Author Author Author
Article title Chapter/article title Name of page
Journal title Book title Name of site
Volume Editor Date last updated
Issue Place of publication Date accessed
Date of publication Publisher URL
Pages Year of publication Sponsor/publisher of site